Literature: Manuals

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This section contains a set of manuals and large documents relevant to the history of the Atlas Computer Laboratory. Many have been reinput using OCR or scanning images. Hopefully, there are not too many errors.

The set so far is:

The Atlas Bible is an early Atlas description, consisting of 335 foolscap pages intended for persons concerned with the design of the system. Each page has an issue-date. Individual pages were updated over the period June 1959 to July 1963 and inserted in a ring-binder as the Atlas hardware and systems software matured at Manchester. The whole, marked confidential, was known colloquially as the Atlas Bible. The pages in this particular copy span the period 2/1/61 to 1/7/63, with most of them being issued prior to September 1962. They therefore represent a historically-interesting snapshot of a developing project. Topics covered include everything from the timing and overlap of instructions to the layout of the engineers' console.

The Stretch Manuals are included as there was quite a rivalry between Stretch (IBM 7030) and Atlas as to which was the fastest.

Excellent sets of Atlas Manuals can be found at and

A set of Stretch Manuals can be found at